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  • Tunnel lighting
    Apr 04, 2018

    1). Tunnel lighting design.     The tunnel lighting can divide into five sections: lead-in section, conforming section, transition section, basic section and exit section; each section has played a different role:

    (1)Lean-in section: Eliminate the "black hole" phenomenon, so the driver can identify obstacles at the exit of the hole; For example, assume at daytime that the brightness on the tunnel mouth environment at 4000cd/m2 and speed at 80KM / H, then the lead-in section meets the minimum request on the length at 40m and brightness at 80cd/m2.

    (2) Conforming section: After entering the tunnel, the driver can quickly adapt to the light in the tunnel and eliminate "black hole" phenomenon; according to the above conditions, the length and luminous intensity on confirming section is at 40m and 80 ~ 46cd/m2.

    (3) Transition section: the driver will gradually adapt to lighting inside the tunnel; according to the above conditions, the length and brightness on transition section is 40m and 40 ~ 4.5cd / m.  

    (4)Basic section: it is the basic lighting inside the tunnel.

    (5)Exit section: In the daytime, it gradually makes the driver adaptable to the exit of the strong light to eliminate the "white hole" phenomenon; at night, it makes the driver in the tunnel to view clearly the linear path and road obstacles to eliminate exit " black hole "phenomenon. Common practice is outside to use the street lighting as a continuous lighting.

    In the daytime, the luminous intensity at the exit and at the entrance should be higher than the basic section. At night, on the contrary, the luminous intensity should be lower than basic section. When the outside of the tunnels has the street light lighting, the brightness on inside tunnel surface should not be less than 2 times the outside tunnel’s ground.

    Outdoor Tunnel Lighting Solutions2).The problems on motor vehicles passing through the tunnel

    (1)Problems when accessing the Tunnel

    Black hole phenomenon     In the daytime, eyes of motor vehicle driver's has adopted to natural light of abve100000 lx and several thousand cd/m2, when the drive went into the tunnel environment with brightness of only a few cd/m2, appearing conform hysteresis and will see a black hole, due to the human eyes’ poor perception of brightness is limited, which can not identify the state. In this way, people can see a black hole in the bright lighting environment called “Black hole phenomenon”. Once presenting black hole phenomenon, with the vehicle close to the tunnel, the driver's visual interval shortening, can not drive safely. Black hole is the phenomenon of visual problems before the entrance to the tunnel and is the most important issue to solve when design tunnel lighting. To avoid the black hole phenomenon, the beginning of the tunnel entrance section of intervals must ensure sufficient brightness; the length of the whole part is slightly longer than the vehicle's safe braking intervals.

    When entering the tunnel, there is a big brightness difference between the outside and inside, adaption will be delayed, the driver cannot adapt to the tunnel brightness quickly, it is hard for them to see the interior of the tunnel clearly. To avoid this situation, the brightness of the entrance should be decreased with the vision complying speed, in a smooth transition, reduce the brightness step by step, yet the brightness level comparison before and after shall not exceed the ratio of 3:1, by the same time, the brightness of the wall below 2m height can not be lower than the corresponding uniform surface brightness.

    (2)Problems during the process of going through the tunnel     The brightness in the tunnel is higher than in the road at night, even in the daytime, but lower at night than at daytime. Considering the vehicles offgas in long tunnel with heavy traffic, the offgas change to smoke because cannot be dispersed, the smoke absorb the light and scatter, reducing visibility, which make visual identification difficult. Vehicle exhaust has great impact on the light of front rear, which can not meet the visual recognition demand. If the brightness in the front 100m road decreased to half, it is usually need 2 times the brightness of the road lighting for compensation of exhaust gas.

    (3)Problems when closing to the tunnel exit     The external brightness is very high by watching from the exit, the exit appears to be a bright hole, showing a serious glare, exit become a white cave, which is called white hole phenomenon; Take bright holes as the background, motor vehicles become a black silhouette and is easy to identify. However, the silhouette of large vans with the back of cars and trucks is hard to see, close to the tunnel exit of heavy traffic load, the lighting made in order to identify overlap of big or small vehicles is called exit lighting; the interval length of exit lighting is tens of meters.

    (4)Problems before driving out of the tunnel during night    During night, before exit from the brightened tunnel to the road without lighting, external tunnels become a black hole could not see the road alignment and the existing obstacles. Then, in order to reach the appropriate level of brightness, it should stop the lighting on the road of tunnel exit, greater second than the safe braking interval, roughly equivalent to a few seconds of motor vehicle driving range.

    3).Application of LED products in the Tunnels     LED used in LED tunnel lighting complete the intelligent automatic dimming control system , which can adjust the illumination intensity automatically as per the light of tunnel. Compared with the traditional plan, electric saving 50% and the life of light source is 6-8 times than traditional tunnel lamps; reduce light loss and the cost of routine maintenance greatly.

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