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  • Wuxi Kinglux Glass Lens Co.Ltd
  • ADD:No.286,Changjiang North Rd,New Dist,Wuxi,JS prov,China
  • Tel: 86-510-66759801
  • Fax: 86-510-84602998
  • Mobile phone: 86-18168862789
  • E-mail: ledglasslens@163.com
  • Contact person: Huimin Zhang
  • Lighting Accounts
    May 11, 2018
    3Offices



    Ref. No.Type of interior, task or activity
    lx
    UGR
    -
    R
    -
     Remarks
    3.1Filing, copying, etc300<>1980
    3.2Writing, typing, reading, data processing500<>1980DSE-work:see 4.11
    3.3Technical drawing750<>1680
    3.4CAD work stations5001980DSE-work:see 4.11
    3.5Conference and meeting rooms500<>1980Lighting should be controllable
    3.6Reception desk300<>2280
    3.7Archives2002580


    In the same standard, as well as the quality criteria mentioned above, the establishment of average uniformity values in the space in relation to the illuminance
    level values on the work space and its surroundings is also requested. These values are given in the following table.

    Task IIIuminance 
    lx
    IIIuminance of immediate surrounding areas 
    lx
    3 750500
    500300
    300200
    200Etask
    Uniformity : 3 0.7Uniformity : 3 0.5


    For interior lighting spaces, the general lighting calculation is performed according to the utilization factor method. This method is also referred to as the "luminous flux or efficiency method".

    Primarily, for the space for which the lighting calculations are to be performed, the average illuminance level (Eo) proposed in the standards (TS EN 12464) is determined from the respective tables.


    Then, depending on the geometrical dimensions of the space, the room index

    k is calculated. k = axb
     ( a+b )h

    a: room width (m) b: room length (m) H: room height (m)
    h: height of the luminaire from the work plane (m)
    hwp: height of the workplane from the floor (m)
    ls: suspension length (m)
    h= H - hwp - ls

    Reflectance factor values of the space are determined depending on the surface colors of the ceiling, walls and work plane.

    The average reflectance factor of the ceilingThe average reflectance factor of the wall The average reflectance factor of the work plane 
    %80Very white%70Light colored%20Dark colored
    %70Off-white%50Dark colored

    %50Light colored%30Very dark colored


    The value of the utilization factor ( ) is determined according to the room index and the reflectance factors of the ceilings, walls and work plane from the efficiency table of the luminaire to be used in the lighting installation.The total necessary luminous flux from the chosen lamps is calculated in order to maintain the desired average illuminance level E0 in the space.


    m: maintenance factor
    Eo: average illuminance level (lux)
    o : total luminous flux of the lamps used in the space (lm)
    : luminous flux of the lamp/s inside the luminaire used in the space (lm)
    Next, the total number of luminaires required to illuminate the space is determined.
    N: Number of luminaires 

    Finally, the control of whether or not the required average illuminance level is provided through the use of N luminaires in the space is performed
    through calculations.


    Calculation of the Number of Luminaires
    Determination of the required number of luminaires in order to obtain an average illuminance level of 500 lx on the work plane of 0.85 m height, in the case of using 60 cm x 60 cm sized, 4x18W flush mounted office luminaires with double parabolic louvres in a sample office volume that is 6 m wide, 10 m long, 2.75 m in high with reflectance factors for ceiling, walls and floor, respectively 0.7, 0.5 and 0.2, is given in detail below (maintenance factor taken as m = 0.8).

    The utilization factor table for Pelsan 4x18W fluorescent lamp luminaire.

     room indexk Surface Reflectance Factors (Ceiling I Wall I Floor)
    808080707070505050
    705030705030705030
    202020202020202020
    0.60.430.360.330.420.360.320.410.350.32
    0.80.490.430.390.480.420.390.460.420.38
    10.530.480.440.520.470.440.50.460.43
    1.250.570.520.490.560.510.480.540.50.47
    1.50.590.550.520.580.540.510.560.530.5
    20.620.590.560.610.580.550.590.560.54
    2.50.640.60.580.620.590.570.60.570.56
    30.650.620.60.630.610.590.610.590.57
    40.660.640.620.650.630.610.620.610.59
    50.670.650.640.660.640.630.630.620.6




    Determination of Number of Luminaires With the help of Lighting Spreadsheet
    The lighting spreadsheet provides information on the the total number of
    luminaires according to the size of the space where the luminaire is to be used and the desired illuminance level. With the help of these spreadsheets, the number of luminaires for maintaining the desired illuminance level can be easily determined. In the preperation of the spreadsheets, room height has been considered as 2.75 m considering general use. Assuming that the rooms have rectangular geometries, the spreadsheets have been created for total area
    values ranging from 20 to 200 m2 and for conventional reflectance factors for a classical office space as 0.7, 0.5 and 0.2 for the ceiling, wall and floor, respectively. The maintenance factor has been taken as 0.8 in the calculations.

    The following chart has been prepared in order to determine the number of required luminaires for areas ranging from 20 to 200 m2, in a conventional office space, in case of using the Pelsan 4x18W, 60 cm x 60 cm sized flush mounted office luminaire with double parabolic louvres to obtain 300 lx, 500 lx, and 750 lx average illuminance levels. As can be seen from the chart, 12 units of 4x18W fluorescent tube luminaires should be used in order to obtain the average illuminance level of 500 lx in a 60 m2 space.



    Sample chart for 4x18W recested double parabolic luminaire

    Road Lighting Calculations
    Road lighting arrangements
    - Left hand single sided arrangement
    - Right hand single sided arrangement
    - Opposite arrangement
    - Staggered arrangement
    - Twin-bracket central arrangement
    - Twin-bracket opposite arrangement
    - Twin-bracket staggered arrangement
    - Transverse catenary arrangement
    - Axial median catenary arrangement

    Road Lighting Calculations
    Road lighting calculations are generally carried
    out according to "point lighting calculation method".

    Road Classes
    The reflection properties of the road surfaces are given with either q luminance coefficient or r reduced luminance coefficient. In fact, luminance coefficient
    or reduced luminance coefficient depends on the direction of the given points to the observer and to the light source. The road classes used in road lighting, average
    luminance coefficients and S1, S2 specular factors are given in the table below.

    Road ClassqoS1S2
    R10.100.251.53
    R20.070.581.80
    R30.071.112.38
    R40.081.553.03
    N10.100.181.30
    N20.070.411.48
    N30.070.881.98
    N40.081.612.84
    CI0.100.24-
    CII0.070.97-


    Road GlassNature of the material
    R1 N1Concrete road surfaces, asphalt road surfaces with 15% artificial brightness, road surfaces that are 80% composed of very shiny stone particles.
    R2 N2Coarse structured and normal road surfaces with fine gravel, asphalt surfaces with 10-15% artificial brightness, rough and coarse asphalt surfaces which are gravel- rich ( > 60%) and have gravels with their size over 10mm.
    R3 N3Coarse structured asphalt surfaces containing dark-colored gravels with 10mm diameter and smaller, coarse but shiny road surfaces
    R4 N4Mastic asphalt, bright and fairly smooth structured road surfaces.



    Turkey domestic roads and lighting classes

    Road Description

    Lighting Class

    City link and peripheral roads (one-or two-way, including crossroads and linking 
    points and city transitions) 

    • Speed 3 90 km/h ;

    • Speed < 90 km/h ;

    M1
    M2

    Innercity main routes (boulevards and streets; ring roads, distribution roads) 

    1. 50 km/h Speed <90 km/h ; interchanges at intervals shorter than 3 km , there is a cloverleaf interchange ; 

    2. 50 km/h Speed <90 km/h ; interchanges at intervals shorter than 3 km , no cloverleaf interchange ;

    3. Speed <50 km/h;

    M1
    M2
    M3

    Inner City Roads (main roads used for entry to residential areas and link roads) 

    • Speed 3 50 km/h ; interchanges at intervals shorter than 3 km , there is a cloverleaf interchange ; 

    • Speed 3 50 km/h ; interchanges at intervals shorter than 3 km , no cloverleaf interchange ; 

    • Speed <50 km/h ; interchanges at intervals shorter than 3 km , there is a cloverleaf interchange ; 

    • Speed <50 km/h ; interchanges at intervals shorter than 3 km , no cloverleaf interchange ;

    M3
    M4
    M4
    M5

    Roads in the settlement (residence) regions 

    1. 30 speed < 50 km/h; crime rate is high; 

    2. 30 speed < 50 km/h; crime rate is normal; 

    3. Speed <30 km/h ; crime rate is high;

    4. Speed <30 km/h; crime rate is normal;

    M4
    M5
    M5
    M6

    Lighting quality values to be be provided for different lighting classes

    Lighting ClassL ( cd/m2 ) 
    ort
    UoU1TI (%)SR
    M13 2.03 0.43 0.7103 0.5
    M23 1.53 0.43 0.7103 0.5
    M33 1.03 0.43 0.5153 0.5
    M43 0.753 0.43 0.5153 0.5
    M53 0.503 0.353 0.4153 0.5
    M63 0.303 0.353 0.415-


    Here;
    Lo : Average road luminance (cd/m )
    Uo : Average uniformity (Uo=Lmm/Lort)
    Ul : longitudinal uniformity (Ul=Lmin/Lmaks)
    TI : Relative threshold increment (TI={ LK- Le}/ Le).
    SR: Surround ratio

    Determination of the points on the road surface for lighting calculations

    Firstly, the calculation area should be determined. In road lighting calculations, calculation area is the section between two poles.The positions of the observer are determined at 60 m behind the first luminaire in the calculation area and in the middle of each lane.

    Road Lighting Calculations



    Number of calculation points in the longitudinal direction if the distance between poles; s £ 30 m then N = 10
    if the distance between poles; s > 30 m then N is determined as D £ 3 m.
    The number of calculation points in the transverse direction on each lane = 3
    d: distance between transversely oriented calculation points (wş / 3)

    Here;
    s: distance between poles (m)
    wş: lane width (m).

    Calculation of the illuminance level of a point on the road surface

    The horizontal illuminance level of a point is equal to the sum of the illuminance levels created by all contributing luminaries at this point. In the figure, point P on the road surface for which the illumination level is to be calculated, is given.


    Isolux Diagrams
    Here,
    I(C,V ) :The value of the luminous intensity reaching point P from luminaire i (cd)
    V:The angle that the beam reaching point P makes with vertical,
    a : Number of luminaires which contribute to point P, center of the luminaire from ground level (m)
    C : Plane angle.


    Isolux Diagrams
    Isolux diagrams are obtained by linearly joining the points on a surface which have equal illuminance levels. In these diagrams, the height of the optical part of the luminaire which emits light (approximately the mounting height of the luminaire) is taken as the basis. This value has been accepted as 10 m in all diagrams as a reference value. The diagram is constructed on a grid system. The point (0,0) has been specified as the center of the luminaire's light emitting surface. The illuminance level at point (0,0), in other words right below the luminaire (Enadir) is given in the title of the diagram. The upper section of point (0,0) has been marked as the pedestrian side and the lower section has been marked as the road side. The positive and negative numbers on the x and y axes are used to determine the illuminance levels on specific points in terms of luminaire mounting heights. For example, point (1,1) on the road side defines the point which is 10 meters to the right and 10 meters low with respect to the luminaire. To compute the illuminance level at this point, the isolux curve which is closest to that point is used. The values of the isolux curves have been given below the diagram. For luminaires at different heights, the conversion table given on the right side of the diagram is used. For example, for a luminaire that is 5 m high, the computed illuminance level value is multiplied by 4.


    Cone Diagrams
    Cone diagrams describe the maximum and average illuminance level values maintained at different distances from the luminaire. The circles in the cone diagram describe the diameter of the lighting created by the light beam coming out of the luminaire at the distance in question; the numerical values next to the circles describe the maximum and average illuminance levels maintained inside the circle.

    Isolux Diagrams
    Calculation of the luminance of a point on the road surface
    The luminance of a point P on the road surface is equal to the sum of luminances
    created by all contributing luminaries at this point.
    The luminance of point P is calculated using the equation:

    Luminance factor q, is the ratio of the luminance value calculated for a particular observing direction and a particular light direction to the horizontal illuminance levels. The representation of the parameters used are given in the Figure.

    Here,
    I(Ci,Yi) : Luminous intensity value from ith source to point P (cd)
    Y i: the angle between the beam from the ith source to point P and the normal to the surface,
    h: Height of the photometric center of the luminaire from ground level (m)
    q( Bi, Yi): Luminance factor (cd/m/lx2 )
    a: Observation angle. Vertical angle between the light reflecting from the road surface and reaching the eye and the horizontal plane
    B: The angle between the vertical plane of the arriving direction of light and the direction of observation



    Color Rendering
    Industrial Area Lighting
    * In the lighting of industrial spaces, tools that perform tasks of their own require a special lighting.
    * This type of lighting should primarily provide physical security.
    * The stroboscopic effect which results in incorrect detection of the motion of objects should be eliminated.
    * Extreme illuminance levels should be avoided.
    * In the lighting of industrial spaces, the comfort of people working in these areas should be taken into consideration.
    * The formation of excessive reflections and shadows should be taken care of.
    * As these types of places are constantly in operation, attention should be paid to energy savings in lighting.
    * As the industrial plants are usually spaces with high ceilings, light sources with long lifetimes should be preferred.
    * The replacement of lamps in the luminaires used in these spaces should be easy.
    * Exproof luminaires should be used in places where flammable and explosive materials exist -such as gas stations
    Luminaire: 2x54W Karpat TL5 Highbay -89W Karpat LED Highbay Location: Industrial Areas


    Determination of Number of Luminaires With the help of Lighting Spreadsheet
    The lighting spreadsheet provides information on the the total number of luminaires according to the size of the space where the luminaire is to be used and the
    desired illuminance level. With the help of these spreadsheets, the number of luminaires for maintaining the desired illuminance level can be easily determined. In the preperation of the spreadsheets, ceiling height has been considered as 8 m considering general use. Assuming that the rooms have
    rectangular geometries, the spreadsheets have been created for total area values ranging from 80 to 260 m2 and for conventional reflectance factors for a classical industrial area space as 0.3, 0.3 and 0.1 for the ceiling, wall and floor, respectively. The maintenance factor has been taken as 0.8 in the calculations.
    The following chart has been prepared in order to determine the number of required luminaires for areas ranging from 80 to 260 m2, in a conventional office space, in case of using the Pelsan 89W Karpat LED and 2x54W Karpat TL5 luminaires to obtain 200 lx, 300 lx, and 500 lx average illuminance levels. As can be seen from the chart, 18 units of 89W Karpat LED luminaire or 19 units of 2x54W T5 Karpat should be used in order to obtain the average illuminance
    level of 300 lx in a 240 m2 space.


    Lighting Control and Design
    *Use of Lighting Controls
    Energy savings can be obtained by using systems that provide lighting in the required amount for the necessary time periods. These systems carry out the automatic process of dimming or turning the lights off through the signals they receive from their sensors, when there are no users and when the amount of daylight entering the space is increased.Up to 40% energy savings can be achieved with these systems which turn the lights off in the periods when there is no need for lighting and provide dimming in order to prevent excessive lighting.


    Convenient Lighting Design
    In a design based on energy savings, primarily the surfaces in the related space (walls, ceiling, floor) should be coated or painted with colors of high reflectance factors. The necessary lighting should be addressed for each respective level. For example, for the lighting of an office, if a 1000 lux illuminance level is needed for the work plane, the whole office should not be illuminated with 1000 lux. Alternative Lighting Solutions

    *Lighting interiors which do not get enough light from the outer environment during the day, by carrying the light through fiber optic cables or reflective pipes.

    *The use of solar energy systems which acquire electricity from solar energy, store the acquired electrical energy and use the stored energy for lighting functions when there is no solar radiation.

    *As the purpose of energy saving is to reduce the energy input, this goal can be accomplished by the supply of energy from renewable sources. The demands for emergency lighting can be met with a small-sized wind solar hybrid power system which can be placed on the roofs of houses.


    Use of High Efficiency Luminaires
    *Use of High Efficiency Light Sources
    The first requirement of energy-savings in lighting is to provide the necessary light for illumination from light sources with high luminous efficacy. Light sources with a high luminous efficacy emit more luminous flux per unit power. Therefore, in illumination with sources having high efficacies, a lower number of light sources are needed and less energy is used for maintaining the same illuminance level. For example, use of fluorescent lamps for the interior lighting of a plant, where high-pressure mercury vapor lamps have been used, can provide savings up to 43%. Efficacy factors of light sources can be obtained from the comparative table of lamps.

    *Use of High Efficiency Luminaires
    Luminaires can not efficiently distribute all the light beams radiating from the light sources inside the luminaire. Some of the light beams are absorbed by the reflecting surfaces or when these surfaces are not positioned correctly, the beams can not be reflected to the target surfaces. In order to overcome this situation, high efficiency luminaires with reflectors of high quality and proper design should be used.

    *Use of Components with Lower Power Loss
    Today, one of the key elements of efficient interior and exterior lighting, discharge lamps, generally need auxiliary components such as ballasts, starters, igniters, etc.. Active power loss caused by auxiliary components, especially the ones which are continuously operating such as the ballast, can significantly affect the efficiency of the system. For example, system efficiency can be improved with ballasts with lower active power loss (lower loss magnetic or electronic ballasts) or using busbar trunks instead of classic installations.


    Energy Saving
    Energy Savings in Lighting

    The concept is to obtain energy savings through reducing the energy input by increasing the efficiency of lighting without compromising from visual performance and comfort. Against false knowledge, these savings can not be obtained through insufficient lighting. The reason to this is that while insufficient lighting can lower the energy consumption, as it affects the efficiency of the workers of the lit space, it does not provide real savings at the end. Furthermore, as it increases the accident rate at work, it may lead to an unexpected result. These savings may be possible with the improvement of the following lighting components:

    *Use of high efficiency light sources
    *Use of high efficiency luminaires
    *Use of components with lower power loss (for example: lower-loss ballast)
    *Use of lighting controls
    *Convenient lighting design
    *Use of alternative lighting components